1. Redness: Caused by the dilation and increased blood flow in the capillaries of the inflamed area. 2. Heat: Caused by increased blood flow and a higher rate of metabolic activity in the inflamed area. 3. Swelling: Caused by the accumulation of fluid and cells that results from the increased permeability of blood vessels. 4. Pain: Caused by the release of chemicals that stimulate nerve endings. 5. Loss of function: Caused by the pain and swelling that can limit the movement or use of the inflamed area.