True or false: The Tea Party movement was opposed to higher taxes to support government programs.
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As compared to other democracies, how likely are Americans to contribute time and money to political and community organizations?
What are the powers specifically given to the national government by the Constitution called?
Which of the following are the two most important forces in the evolution of the American federal structure?
- the strength of contending interests that sought to change the balance of power between the nations and the states
- the country's changing needs
Which of the following best describes the limit that dual federalism places on national government power?
- The national government is kept from extending its power into policy areas traditionally reserved for the states.
Who among the following were the authors of The Federalist Papers, which argued for ratifying the Constitution?
- Alexander Hamilton
- James Madison
Identify the checks on judicial power that are available to Congress.
- rewriting legislation it feels the judiciary has misinterpreted
- exercising its authority to confirm Supreme Court justices
Judicial review is a term that refers to the power that courts have to Blank______.
- invalidate a law or action on constitutional grounds
To whom or what does the president typically delegate the task of identifying nominees to lower-court positions?
- the deputy attorney general
According to the doctrine of judicial restraint, judges should Blank______.
- generally defer to the policy decisions made by elected officials
Approximately what percentage of Donald Trump's judicial appointees were minority-group members?
Which of the following statements accurately describes the challenge faced by the judiciary in interpreting the Constitution?
- The Constitution is silent concerning the approach that judges should take in deciding cases where the law is not completely clear.
Presidents can influence the courts by Blank______.
- influencing the cases that come before courts
- choosing how much to enforce court decisions
In the spirit of devolution, President Ronald Reagan proposed a type of federalism, called "Blank______ Federalism" that would give more control to the states and localities.
True or false: The line between proper and improper judicial decision-making is very clear.
Which of the following actions gave the national government more power than the states during George W. Bush's presidency?
- creation of the Department of Homeland Security
Which of the following entities are in a competitive situation regarding taxation?
Which of the following statements describe how U.S. campaigns are both party centered and candidate centered? (Choose every correct answer.)
- The same parties are represented nationwide.
- Candidates organize their own campaigns.
How did many of the founders of the United States view political parties?
- They viewed political parties with suspicion.
How would the framers have reacted to the ways in which federal power has evolved over the decades?
- They would be largely unsurprised.
What happens in one part of the country affects what happens in other parts because of Blank______.
Which of the following voting blocs migrated to the Republican Party during the 1980s and 1990s?
Political parties began to emerge in the United States Blank______.
- in spite of many of the founders' mistrust of them
A Blank______ political system is made up of at least three political parties.
The agreement of Blank______ states was required to enact legislation under the Articles of Confederation.
America's plurality, or winner-take-all, system of electing candidates works to the disadvantage of Blank______.
Despite the original purpose of the Philadelphia convention, which was to revise the Articles of Confederation, from its beginning prominent delegates were determined to Blank______.
- create a stronger central government
What provision had been removed from Jefferson's initial draft of the Declaration of Independence at the insistence of southern states?
- a statement critical of slavery
What has happened to the New England states since the 1980s?
- They have shifted toward the Democrats.
During the drafting of the U.S. Constitution, Anti-Federalists believed that Blank______.
- the national government was going to have excessive power under the Constitution
The U.S. government functions as a(n) Blank______ system.
Which of the following are functions of political consultants?
- producing promotional materials
- advising on how to run a successful campaign
- gathering voter opinions
Which of the following groups are currently most likely part of the Democratic coalition?
- African Americans
- 18–29 year olds
Most historians assume that Blank______ role in the new government is what tipped the balance toward ratification of the Constitution.
Southern delegates to the Philadelphia convention were determined to Blank______.
- block any attempt to end slavery
The framers' goal of a government that would not threaten liberty was to be accomplished by Blank______.
- an elaborate system of checks and balances
What usually happens after a third party is relatively successful in attracting votes during a U.S. national election?
- One or both major parties will try to co-opt the issue or issues that made the third party successful.
Why was there strong support for a bill of rights during the debate over ratification of the Constitution?
- fear that the national government would not respect people's rights
The belief that the power of government can be controlled by dividing it into several branches instead of concentrating it in one area is known as Blank______.
Historical evidence suggests that a majority of ordinary Americans Blank______ ratification of the Constitution.
Political parties and their ability to control politics in the United States have been weakened by Blank______-centered campaigns.
True or false: Local party organizations are stronger today than they were in the days of the political machines.
True or false: Voter turnout increases about 5 percent in states that allow same-day registration.
Which of the following voting restrictions increases the burden on citizens who move frequently?
- voter registration requirements
Which of the following groups has the highest rate of voter turnout?
- middle-aged people from the upper class
Over 70 percent of Americans' political participation via community activities takes place in which of the following?
Compared to citizens in Europe, Americans are Blank______ likely to contribute time and money to political campaigns.
Internet political participation peaks during which of the following?
Why is participation in local organizations twice as high in the United States as it is in Europe?
- Americans have an incentive to participate because there is more local control over policy in the United States than in Europe.
- Americans are more likely to attend church and engage in church-related community work.
What is a social or political movement?
- a movement that has more to do with society than with the government
- a way for disenchanted citizens to voice their displeasure with government policy
- a paradigm shift that happens gradually over time
Why did the communist movement fail in America?
- It lacked the ideological commitment to sustained action.
- It was never able to institutionalize its goals.
- Its goals were too at odds with American values.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the relationship between income and political participation in the United States?
- Higher-income citizens are the most active because they have the resources to participate effectively.
Harvard's Robert Putnam refers to the sum of face-to-face civic interactions among citizens in a society as Blank______.
For a movement to succeed, it must Blank______.
- institutionalize its goals
Generally, protests Blank______ have not been popular in the United States.
- against U.S. military action
True or false: Americans in the lowest 20 percent of income earners have the highest levels of participation in the United States.
What three basic elements are usually involved in a party realignment?
- an enduring change in the parties' policies and coalitions
- unusually powerful and divisive issues
- a shift in voters' partisan support in elections
A reason political parties have emerged whenever democracy has been established is that Blank______.
- political parties provide individuals a way to join together in order to exercise their collective influence
What percentage of voters today cast a split ticket?
What percentage of party activists work within local political party organizations?
True or false: The Constitution requires that federal judges be citizens and at least thirty years old.
What was the first opportunity to determine whether or not the judiciary had the power to nullify actions that violated the Constitution?
- when a dispute arose after the election of 1800
The concept of judicial review means that Blank______.
- the judicial branch has the power to declare null and void government actions that it finds unconstitutional
In a majority of the state conventions to ratify the Constitution (8 of 13), it was claimed that Blank______ would have the power to nullify actions that violated the Constitution.
A Supreme Court Blank______ explains the justices' legal basis for their decision.
A key concern for the group known as the Blank______ was that the proposed Constitution lacked a bill of rights.
In the Electoral College, each state has electors equal to Blank______.
- its representation in Congress
One goal of the framers of the Constitution was to Blank______.
- preserve the states as governing entities
Under the Articles of Confederation, what problem arose because the national government had no power to levy taxes on its citizens?
- The nation could not maintain an army or navy.
What was the legal argument in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) against the federal government establishing a national bank?
- The Constitution did not expressly authorize the establishment of a national bank.
True or false: The principle of federalism has provoked frequent and bitter conflict from the time the Constitution was ratified.
What are the three types of agricultural interest groups in Texas?
- those that represent commodity groups
- those that represent suppliers
- those that represent general farming interests
What is the largest category of interest group?
- nonmembership organizations
Who would be least likely to be a member of a professional association?
Which type of interest group has little power in Texas compared to many other states?
State and local interest groups (SLIGs) represent Blank______.
- the organization, not its individual members
Which of the following are considered lobbying efforts?
- encouraging members of an interest group to contact legislators regarding legislation
- working with members of the legislature to draft legislation
- testifying before a committee hearing about the effect of proposed legislation
The Texas Automobile Association seeks to protect and promote the interests of its member businesses that are involved in the sales of goods and services and thus is an example of a Blank______.
In what ways does a professional association differ from a trade association?
- the state regulates the scope of its members' practice
- its members typically hold a state-issued professional license
How has the interest group tactic of entertaining legislators changed over the years?
- Although all forms of entertaining legislators are prohibited by law, the practice is stronger than ever before.
- The process of giving legislators lavish entertainment and gifts has grown dramatically in recent years.
- There is less provision of entertainment, but it is still a key part of the process.
- Interest groups are now forbidden by law from entertaining or "wining and dining" legislators.
Which of the following tactics were used to disenfranchise Blacks in the post-Civil War South despite the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment?
- proof of citizenship requirements
- literacy tests
Which of the following arguments drew large support for passing the Twenty-Sixth Amendment, granting eighteen-year-olds the right to vote?
- Since eighteen-year-olds were eligible for the military, they should also be able to vote.
- The voting age in all other major democratic societies was eighteen.
Presidents typically nominate people to lower-court judgeships Blank______.
- who are members of their political party
Which of the following is true about the Supreme Court's control in selecting cases to hear.
- It has almost complete control in deciding the cases it will hear.
What did the Supreme Court decide in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)?
- The necessary and proper clause implies the power to establish a national bank.
- National law overrides state law.
Recent Supreme Court appointees have come overwhelmingly from what background?
Which of the following are issued by the Supreme Court after hearing a case?
- a decision
- one or more opinions
Under the common law tradition, judges should base their decisions on Blank______.
- previous judicial rulings
Each of the 50 states structures and maintains its own Blank______.
While serving on the Court, Supreme Court justices tend to Blank______.
- make decisions in line with their views when they were nominated to the Court
Which of the following are reasons why the policy role of the federal government has expanded greatly since the early twentieth century?
- Americans trust the federal government more than they trust their state and local governments.
True or false: The federal courts nearly always have the final say in disputes over constitutional powers and rights.
Supreme Court chief justice John Marshall used the Court to strengthen the judiciary and the federal government. These actions demonstrated Marshall's use of judicial Blank______.
Alexander Hamilton claimed that the federal government had the implied power to create a national bank through its power to Blank______.
Which of the following best describes the doctrine of dual federalism?
- The Supreme Court maintained a precise separation of state power and national power.
Since the 1930s, the power of the federal government has Blank______.
Since the 1930s, five new cabinet departments have been created to Blank______.
- administer federal programs in policy areas traditionally reserved to the states.
Which of the following are true of grassroots parties?
- They are open to all voters.
- They operate at the local level.
What was behind the 1990s-era rollback of federal authority?
A permanent shift in party allegiances or electoral support is known as a party Blank______.
How many major political parties are there in the United States today?
When casting a Blank______, citizens vote for candidates from different parties.
A government that is subject to strict legal constraints on the uses of power so as not to threaten the people's liberty is a Blank______.
The American Revolution was partly a rebellion against Britain's failure to Blank______.
- grant colonists the "rights of Englishmen"
Whereas Jefferson’s party had operated largely at the leadership level, Jackson sought a(n):
What happened as a result of Shays' Rebellion?
- A convention was called for, to meet in Annapolis.
Which British policy was the main source of dispute for the American colonists?
- taxation without representation
When a realignment in the electorate occurs, which of the following happens?
- The parties reorganize themselves.
According to the Virginia Plan, who or what would exercise power in all areas "in which the separate states are incompetent"?
Identify the events that led to creation of the U.S. Constitution.
- The Annapolis Convention did not have enough participants to revise the Articles of Confederation.
- Shays' rebellion had shown the weakness of the national government under the Articles of Confederation.
- Madison and Hamilton encouraged delegates at the Annapolis Convention to meet again to revise the Articles of Confederation.
True or false: It took over 60 votes for the delegates to the constitutional convention to agree on how the president would be chosen.
Third parties formed to promote a stance on a particular issue are known as Blank______.
Many voters cast a Blank______, where they only vote for candidates of one party.
What was the lesson of the Articles of Confederation?
- Government must be granted the amount of power that is necessary for it to carry out its responsibilities.
A state that permits all registered voters, regardless of party affiliation, to vote in a primary election has what type of primary system?
Following the French and Indian War, Britain for the first time imposed what on the colonies?
- the implementation of heavy taxation