When psychologists who are studying memory talk about "Miller's Magic Number," they are referring to the _____.
capacity of long-term memory duration of long-term memory duration of short-term memory capacity of short-term memory
capacity of short-term memory
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You are a member of your university IRB. You are being asked to evaluate a study where participants will be asked to talk about three real events from their childhood as well as one "pseudo-event." It is most likely that this study is about.... You are listening to a podcast where the person talks about things like "oral fixations," "repression," and the "unconscious mind." These concepts are most connected to which person in psychology's history? In this module, you encountered the term "imagination inflation." What was the main point related to this term? Imagining an event from the past, even if it never happened, can make it sometimes feel like a real memory. In this module, you encountered the term "imagination inflation." What was the main point related to this term? Imagining an event from the past, even if it never happened, can make it sometimes feel like a real memory. In this module, you encountered the term "imagination inflation." What was the main point related to this term? Imagining an event from the past, even if it never happened, can make it sometimes feel like a real memory. Dr. Wu is a therapist working with patients with depression. He believes very strongly in psychodynamic theory. When Dr. Wu asks his patients to think about early memories of childhood abuse, almost all of them correctly say that they never experienced abuse. They say things like, "Nope. Never had anything like that," or, "Definitely not. I was never abused and had a pretty good childhood." How is Dr. Wu likely going to respond to these statements from his patients? Because he expects resistance, he will likely assume the abuse was repressed or the patients are in denial. What percentage of people in the Lost in the Mall Study and the Hot Air Balloon Study developed (at least partially) a false memory of the event which never actually happened? In the Lost in the Mall Study, it was 25% of people, and in the Hot Air Balloon Study it was 50% of people. What percentage of people in the Lost in the Mall Study and the Hot Air Balloon Study developed (at least partially) a false memory of the event which never actually happened? In the Lost in the Mall Study, it was 25% of people, and in the Hot Air Balloon Study it was 50% of people. What percentage of people in the Lost in the Mall Study and the Hot Air Balloon Study developed (at least partially) a false memory of the event which never actually happened? In the Lost in the Mall Study, it was 25% of people, and in the Hot Air Balloon Study it was 50% of people. Dr. Wu is a therapist working with patients with depression. He believes very strongly in psychodynamic theory. When Dr. Wu asks his patients to think about early memories of childhood abuse, almost all of them correctly say that they never experienced abuse. They say things like, "Nope. Never had anything like that," or, "Definitely not. I was never abused and had a pretty good childhood." How is Dr. Wu likely going to respond to these statements from his patients? Because he expects resistance, he will likely assume the abuse was repressed or the patients are in denial. You are taking a class on the Psychology of Learning. During this week's lab, your partner will be classically conditioning you to flinch when you hear a tone. You will be blindfolded and a device will be connected to your finger that can deliver a very mild electric shock. (The shock is harmless, but is enough to cause you to flinch each time it is delivered). Your partner conditions you by first sounding a tone for 2 seconds and then introduces the shock to your finger (causing you to flinch). After experiencing this pairing of the tone and the shock several times, you start to flinch whenever you hear the tone (even if there is no shock).
In this example, what would be the unconditioned response? flinching when your finger is shocked A young boy decides to wear a tie to church. This leads to many comments by the older ladies in the church. They say things like, "Aren't you handsome?!" and "Well, my heavens, look at this dashing young man.!" The boy hates this attention from the old women, so he never wears a tie again. Skinner would point out that the compliments received by the old women produced.... In her classic study, Elizabeth Loftus showed participants a film of a car accident. She then asked participants to estimate the speed of the cars. However, participants heard slightly different words when they were asked to estimate the speed of the cars. Some were asked, "How fast were the cars going when they contacted one another?" Others were asked, "How fast were the cars going when they smashed into one another?" Loftus found that the wording used had an influence on the estimated speed that participants reported. In this classic study, what was the independent variable? The wording that was used to ask the question (contacted, smashed, etc.) For a typical adult who is experiencing a healthy night of sleep, we would expect that stages 3 and 4 NREM sleep would tend to ____. occur mostly during the first half of the night Most modern-day psychologists feel that Sigmund Freud's theories about the meaning of dreams have significant scientific support to back them up. Jeff works for his university in the sleep lab. While looking at the brain waves of tonight's test subject, Jeff sees theta waves that are periodically interrupted by either sleep spindles or K-complexes. This will most likely lead Jeff to conclude that his test subject _____. is currently experiencing stage 2 NREM sleep Why is REM sleep often referred to as “paradoxical” sleep? Because internally the body and brain are aroused, but outwardly the body is paralyzed You are sitting in your favorite chair on a sunny afternoon. You start peacefully drifting off to sleep, when suddenly you feel the vivid sensation that you are falling. This causes your entire body to spasm, and scares your poor cat who was sitting on your lap. What has happened here? You experienced a type of hypnagogic hallucination Negative emotions or events (such as fear or worry) are (on average) more common in dreams than positive emotions or events. When shown several options of pennies, where only one matches the characteristics of a real penny, most participants struggle to pick the correct penny. Even though they have seen many pennies in their life, most people just never had a reason to notice or memorize all the specific details about the markings on a penny. This shows that the reason people can't remember what a penny looks like is because of ______. Imagine a doctor working with a patient who has amnesia. Next, suppose the doctor puts a thumbtack in their hand before shaking the patient's hand, giving the patient a light "stab" or "prick" with the thumbtack. The doctor introduces themselves again the next day and again sticks out their hand. This time, however, the patient will not shake their hand. The patient doesn't remember meeting the doctor, and they can't explain why the don't want to shake the doctor's hand, but they say they have a bad feeling about that doctor. What does this show us? The patient was unable to create an explicit memory for the event of meeting the doctor, but was still able to create an implicit memory. A young toddler has a cat at home and has learned the word "cat" to describe it. On a trip to the woods, the toddler and his family see a skunk. The toddler says, "cat." His parents explain to him that this animal is a "skunk," not a cat. By doing so, the toddler's parents are.... helping him to modify his schemas In one study, scuba divers were divided into two groups and then told to learn a list of words while sitting on the beach or while actively scuba diving. When tested on the words later, participants who had matched study and test environments (beach/beach and diving/diving) recalled more words than participants with mismatched study and test environments (beach/diving and diving/beach). This study provided an example of which phenomenon? the encoding specificity principle Pick the example that best illustrates the type of retrieval known as "recognition." A teacher standing at the door of their class and trying to greet each student by name You are taking a psychology exam and just read a question about the functions of different neurotransmitters. You remember seeing that section, but you didn't read the specific functions of each neurotransmitter because you assumed it wouldn't be on the test. Because of this, you can't recall the correct answer on the exam. This would be an example of ______. Pick the example that best fits with serial recall. Asking an elementary student to recite the Pledge of Allegiance On June 1, 2020, Edward experienced a traumatic brain injury. After he recovered, Edward realized that he no longer has memories for January - May of 2020. Since recovering, he is able to remember new events and can learn the names of new people, but he has no memories for the period of 5 months leading up to his injury. We would most likely say that Edward has symptoms of _____. When your instructor lost his banking debit card, he had to select a new PIN code for his new debit card. Now, he has a hard time recalling the new PIN code, and often accidentally types in his old PIN code at the ATM machine. What would this represent? A psychologist reads you a list of 19 words. After you hear the last word on the list, you are given the chance to write down as many of the words as you can recall. The results show that, like most people, you remembered the first two or three words on the list quite easily. This would be an example of a(n) _____. In one video, we saw people falsely recalling that they had been on a hot air balloon, even though it had never happened. One reason people came to believe that this event had occurred was because they had spent time imagining it, along with other real memories. This resulted in _________, where the process of trying to recall the event started to feel like a real memory. Your cousin is visiting you and needs to get something out of the garage, which has a pincode pad to open it. You tell him the code is 83129. As he walks to the garage, he repeats silently in his mind... 83129, 83129, 83129... until he reaches the garage to put in the code. This illustrates an effort by your cousin to hold the information in his _______. You see someone singing the "Star Spangled Banner" (America's national anthem). During the song, they remember the beginning of the song and they also remember the ending, but they mess up a few words in the middle. What did we learn about in this class that would relate to this example? the serial position effect The psychologist George Miller referred to the _________ as being about "7 plus or minus 2." capacity of short-term memory During this exam, you are trying to access information in your mind that you stored in long-term memory earlier this quarter. Trying to access this information so you can think about it (in your active mind) during the exam would represent a process of memory called ______. Professor Eggerman has a very vivid memory of seeing his wife walk down the aisle with her mom at his wedding. He can recall the sound of the music, the color of the dress, and the happiness of that moment. This type of memory would be an example of a(n) ______, which is a type of ______. episodic memory; explicit memory When Pam is feeling irritated or angry, she is more easily able to retrieve other events from her past that caused her to feel anger. These memories might not have been as easily retrieved if she was happy, but the state of being angry makes it easier to access those other angry memories. What concept that we learned about can best explain this? the encoding specificity principle One man we learned about (H.M.) was asked to practice drawing the outline of a star while looking at his hand in a mirror. With practice, he was able to complete this task more easily over time. However, each time he was asked to trace the outline of the star, he was never able to recall that he had already done this task on previous days or weeks. Instead, he was surprised by how easy it was. What would cognitive psychologists say that this shows us? H.M. could make new implicit memories, but not new explicit memories. What happened during the lost in the mall study that we learned about? Researchers asked participants to remember the details from three real events from their childhood, and then tried to create a false memory for being lost in a shopping mall as a child. When researchers asked participants to view a photo of a professor's office, they often remembered seeing things that were not actually in the photo. Why did this happen? The participants relied on their schemas about the types of items that would normally be found in a professor’s office. When cognitive psychologists talk about short-term memory, they are referring to your ability to recall things that occurred within the past.... In one video, we watched an older gentleman named E.P. The researchers had visited him many times over the years, but E.P. never remembered their names. This illustrates that E.P. was experiencing _____. If you were going to summarize the results of Hermann Ebbinghaus's famous "forgetting curve," you would be most accurate to say that..... forgetting tends to occur very rapidly at first, but then the rate of forgetting begins to slow down Rahim is a Canadian college student who is taking physics. This evening, Rahim is relaxing in his room reading about how to solve physics problems. By doing so, Rahim is attempting to enter new information into his memory, which is known as _____. Which of these best summarizes one of the main points of Loftus's research? Being exposed to misleading information after an event can cause us to form inaccurate memories. You are working as a lab assistant on a new cognitive psychology study. You are asked to read each participant a list of words. As soon as you finish the list, the participant hears a tone and must engage in a distractor task where they begin counting backwards from 98 by 4's (98, 94, 90, 86, etc.). Some participants must count backwards for 10 seconds, while others must count backwards for 30 seconds. After their counting time is over, participants are asked to try to remember to words you read to them earlier. It would appear from the design of this study that your lab is investigating the ______. duration of short-term memory Professor Li is trying to memorize his students' names. To test himself, he stands at the classroom door and looks at each student’s face as they arrive. He then tries to say each student’s name out loud. This would represent a type of retrieval test that is called _____. Your professor has a confirmation number for a flight that he just booked. He needs to remember it and has no way to right it down. To remember his confirmation number, 23199832, he remembers it as Michael Jordan's jersey number (23), the year of Michael Jordan's last season with the Chicago Bulls (1998), and Karl Malone's jersey number (32). By using these pieces of information to break up the confirmation number, your professor is making use of something that cognitive psychologists call.... In grade school, Maria was taught the order of planets using the mnemonic: “My very energetic mother just served us nine pizzas.” In this mnemonic, each word starts with the same first letter as one of the planets (in order). My for Mercury, very for Venus, etc. What type of mnemonic is this? You are working as a work study student for a biology professor who asks you to go to Building 22, Room 207 to pick up some documents. You don't have a pen and paper, so in your mind, you silently repeat... "Building 22, Room 207.... Building 22, Room 207.... Building 22, Room 207...." as you walk across the campus. This would be an example of using your _______ to hold the building number and room number in your ________ as you walk across campus. phonological loop; short-term memory Pick the example of retroactive interference. Having a hard time remembering your SCC student ID number during your first semester at WSU (because of memorizing your new WSU student ID number) What type of materials did Hermann Ebbinghaus use in his research studies where he explored the way in which we forget things? lists of nonsense syllables While shopping with your roommate, you ask her if a rug that you see would look nice in your dorm room. Your roommate pictures your dorm room in her mind, and mentally places the rug into that mental picture to see how it might look . This would be an example of your roommate using her _____. Mike drives a convertible. Today, he decided to leave the top down on his convertible when he went into the gym. After he came back outside, Mike discovered that his favorite book had been stolen from the back seat of his car. Losing this book teaches Mike to stop leaving the top down on his convertible. This is an example of _______. Chen lives in a rural area in the woods up in the mountains. One day, Chen can see a large plume of smoke in the distance. Because Chen knows how quickly wildfires can spread, he suddenly feels very afraid. This sense of fear would be connected mainly to brain activity in Chen's _____. Your roommate always makes really delicious pizza on Friday night, which they share with you. The pizza is so delicious that your stomach automatically rumbles ("growls") every time you take the first bite. Each Friday night, you sit in your room working on your homework. You don't really feel hungry as you study, but as soon as you hear the timer on the oven, which indicates the pizza is ready, you notice that your stomach automatically starts to rumble (or "growl").
In this situation, what would be the unconditioned stimulus? The pizza (i.e. the pizza going into your mouth) Dr. Li is studying how children of different ages describe themselves. For example, Dr. Li has found that most 3-to-5-year-olds focus on physical appearances or objects, saying things like, "I'm a fast runner," or "I have lots of toy cars." Older children, however, use more personality traits to describe themselves, saying things such as, "I'm kind of shy," or "I enjoy helping people."
Based on this research, what area of psychology would you guess that Dr. Li specializes in? You are cooking some food in the microwave while you study for your finals. When the timer goes off on the microwave, you stand up from the couch and go get your food. In this situation, the noise that the microwave made (which signaled you to stand up) would be referred to as a(n).... Jenny was once chased and bitten by a German Shepard, and is now extremely fearful whenever she sees a German Shepard. You want to help her get over this fear. You present her with the German Shepard (which frightens her), but she doesn't get bit. You repeat this process multiple times and notice that (little by little) her fear begins to disappear. You appear to be using ______ to help Jenny get rid of her fear of German Shepards. During Watson and Rayner's famous study with Little Albert, how would we describe the white rat? It started out as a neutral stimulus, and then became a conditioned stimulus. During your philosophy class, you and the rest of the students wait for the professor to say, "Class dismissed," which is a signal that they can now start packing up your backpacks. In this scenario, the action of packing up your backpack after you hear the teacher say, "Class dismissed" would be a(n) ___________. Your instructor used to know a lot of facts about Roman and Greek mythology. This is because he was taking Latin classes in junior high and high school and studied this topic in order to compete at national competitions (true story). However, this information has slowly faded from his mind over the years, mainly because he has not used it or studied it in a long time. This type of forgetting would most likely be due to...... You work at a corn maze, where farmers create a maze of different paths in a corn field. There are several ways to get to the end of the maze, and you have spent many days exploring it by yourself during your time working there. For Halloween, they turn the maze into a "haunted" maze by placing actors in the maze who pretend to be zombies. You go to the maze for fun and when you come to one spot, it is blocked by a zombie. However, you quickly think and realize that you can go a different way to reach the end of the maze. Your ability to quickly adjust your path and still reach the end of the maze would be the result of _____. A sign that says "OPEN" in the window of Mark's favorite sandwich shop lets him know that he can walk into the store and get some lunch. However, today Mark got to the store too late and the sign has been turned around to read "CLOSED." Because of this, Mark does not try to go into the store. In this situation, the "OPEN" and "CLOSED" signs are examples of ______. A farmer has gophers digging in his fields, which he does not like. So, he is offering cash rewards of $200 for every five gophers that his workers can trap or catch. What kind of schedule of reinforcement is this? Many times when she was a child, Lucy was stung by bees. She always saw the bees before they stung her, which created a conditioned response of fear. Now, Lucy fears all bugs. Even the sight of a moth flying around causes her to panic. What concept would explain her fear? Jason is on the treadmill at the gym. He looks up at the television on the wall and sees that "TMZ" is on. Because he hates trashy celebrity gossip on TMZ, Jason goes and asks a staff member for the remote so he can turn off the TV. Because asking for the remote allowed him to turn off TMZ, this is an example of... When Rani was having problems at school, she often talked things over with her grandfather. Her grandfather, who always smoked a pipe, was kind, reassuring, loving, and always very supportive. Years later, Rani still finds the smell of pipe tobacco to be soothing and comforting. When Rani smells pipe smoke as an adult and begins to experience positive emotional feelings, this means the smoke would now be described as a(n) ________. During depolarization (i.e. when a portion of an axon is depolarizing) what is happening? sodium ions are flowing into the cell You find a correlation of r = -0.44 between the number of minutes a person spends each day on social media and their level of intelligence (measured on an IQ test, where higher scores represent more intelligence). What can we conclude from this? The more intelligent people are, the less time they tend to spend on social media. You are dreaming about a trip to the mall and soon you realize it is a dream. Since you know it's a dream, you start to take control of the story. You turn yourself into a millionaire and start buying all of the most expensive things. Because you are controlling the dream, we would call this a(n) _____. There is a small part of your hypothalamus that is sensitive to changes in light in the environment and controls your circadian rhythm. It's called the _____. Wahid is an average, healthy adult who has normal sleep cycles. It is the beginning of the night, and Wahid is in the middle of his first sleep cycle. If he is just now finishing up his NREM stage 4 sleep, the very next stage that Wahid will enter into will be ______. You are working for a sleep research center at the university. As you look at the brain waves for one of tonight's test subjects, you see that approximately 85% of their brain wave activity consists of delta waves. From this, you can conclude that this test subject is currently experiencing _____. According to what we learned about sleep hygiene, people should use their bed only for sleep and for sex. In other words, doing other things like studying for your classes while sitting in your bed is generally not recommended by experts who study sleep hygiene. In a typical adult who is having a normal, healthy night of sleep, we would expect to see that periods of REM sleep tend to ____ as the night progresses. Based on what we learned about sleep hygiene, to help them sleep better, it is a good idea for adults to exercise in the evenings right before they go to bed and then have a glass of wine. Sleepwalking typically occurs during REM sleep, when the person is acting out their dream. Sally recently had a stroke that impacted the fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere of her temporal lobe. What might we expect to see happen how? Sally might have trouble with recognizing faces You track the correlation between temperature and the number of serious car accidents on the freeways in Washington state. What you find is that the colder the temperature, on average, the more serious accidents there tend to be. What kind of correlation would this represent? A psychologist wants to conduct a survey of employees who work at the Amazon warehouse in Spokane. They want to ensure the opinions of the participants who take the survey represent the overall opinion of all workers at that warehouse. What is the best way to do this? By randomly selecting who takes the survey Before the beginning of an study on "disgust," a researcher speaks with every participant one-on-one. The researcher explains to each participant that the study will involve showing them pictures that are meant to gross them out. He then asks them to sign a form stating that they understand the risks of being grossed out and confirming they want to continue with the study. This researcher is.... obtaining informed consent In a recent study, you ask participants what type of cell phone they use, and you also ask them to rate how much they enjoy using their phone. You find that those participants who use Android phones rate their enjoyment (on average) as being 6.9 out of 10 points, while those who use Apple phones rate their enjoyment of their phone (on average) as 9.3 out of 10 points. If someone called this an "experiment," why should you correct them and tell them that it was a "study," but NOT an experiment? Because the researchers did not actually manipulate any kind of variable Meg is 16 years old and her parents told her that if she earns straight A's this semester, they will buy her a car. Unfortunately, Meg earned two B's, a C, and a D+. Because of this, her parents will not be buying Meg a car. What can we say here? This is a situation where Meg failed to earn a positive reinforcement that was offered to her. In one video, you watched a dog that was conditioned to fear an F# (F-sharp) musical note. Each time the F# was played, one of the students would jump at the dog to scare him. Eventually the dog would flinch and bark in fear when just the note was played. If these students then tried playing other notes, such as C#, G, A, etc., but the dog did not respond with any flinching or barking to any of these other musical notes (but only to the F#), would be displaying _______. In most classes (in your past), when you have raised your hand, the teacher will call on you. However, in your philosophy class, you have noticed that your professor never calls on you when you raise your hand. Because of this, after a few days of trying, you eventually stop raising your hand in your philosophy class. According to operant conditioning, you have stopped raising your hand because of what learning concept? In some cities, scientists have trained crows to pick up cigarette butts in local city parks. The crows can deposit the cigarette butts into a canister that then give them a piece of food. This represents an example of psychologists using _______ to improve the cleanliness of city parks. Jackie and her boyfriend have started fighting. Jackie has a special chime (sound) that her phone makes when her boyfriend texts her. Recently, all of the texts have been mean, insulting, or rude and have caused Jackie to feel upset. Now, she has started associating the sound of her phone's special chime with receiving these insulting and rude texts. It has gotten to the point that just hearing that particular chime (sound) on her phone makes her automatically feel upset. What type of learning has occurred here? According to what we learned, if a 4-or-5-year-old child misbehaves, which of the following would be the most appropriate length of time to put the child in "time out?" What is the opinion of most psychologists, based on research data, about the use of spanking as a form of punishment for children? It's best to completely avoid spanking as a form of punishment. Tolman's famous study with three groups of rats provided evidence that... the rats created and stored cognitive maps in their minds. You are taking a class on the Psychology of Learning. During this week's lab, your partner will be classically conditioning you to flinch when you hear a tone. You will be blindfolded and a device will be connected to your finger that can deliver a very mild electric shock. (The shock is harmless, but is enough to cause you to flinch each time it is delivered). Your partner conditions you by first sounding a tone for 2 seconds and then introduces the shock to your finger (causing you to flinch). After experiencing this pairing of the tone and the shock several times, you start to flinch whenever you hear the tone (even if there is no shock).
In this example, what would be the conditioned response? flinching whenever you hear the tone You are on a hike in the woods and the flies and mosquitoes are bothering you. As you walk, you swing your left arm back and forth in front of your face to try to rid yourself of the bugs. This action of controlling the muscles to move your left arm back and forth would involve using your.... A long time ago, Sigmund Freud proposed that dreams had hidden meaning. For example, a woman might dream about baking bread in her oven. Freud, however, might say that the oven represented the woman's uterus, and that baking bread represented her unconscious desire to have another baby. In this scenario, Freud's interpretation of what the oven and the action of baking bread really mean would be something he called the _________ of the dream. How do the purpose statements (general purpose and specific purpose) differ from the central idea of a speech, according to how they are described in the course lecture? The purpose statements of a speech, both general and specific, are about the overall intent or goal of the speech. The general purpose is the broad goal of the speech, such as to inform, persuade, or entertain. The specific purpose is a more detailed statement about what the speaker hopes to accomplish with the speech. On the other hand, the central idea of a speech is the main point or key message that the speaker wants to communicate to the audience. It is the core concept that all parts of the speech revolve around. While the purpose statements guide the development of the speech, the central idea is what the speech is fundamentally about. According to the "Speech Development and Speech to Inform Format" lecture, what five elements are included in the Speech to Inform format? List and describe what is included in each of the five parts. 1. Introduction: This is the opening part of the speech where the speaker introduces the topic, grabs the audience's attention, and states the purpose or thesis of the speech. It sets the tone for the rest of the speech. 2. Body: This is the main part of the speech where the speaker presents the information or arguments. It is usually divided into several sections or points, each with its own subtopic. 3. Transitions: These are phrases or sentences that link one point to the next, helping to guide the audience through the speech and making it easier to follow. 4. Conclusion: This is the closing part of the speech where the speaker summarizes the main points, restates the thesis in a new way, and leaves the audience with something to think about. 5. References: This is where the speaker cites the sources of information used in the speech. It is important for credibility and to avoid plagiarism. Speaking to report new information, clarify difficult terms, explain scientific phenomena, and overcome confusion and misunderstanding describes what type of speaking purpose? In your own words, what does it mean to be an audience-centered speaker and why is it important? Being an audience-centered speaker means tailoring your message, language, content, and delivery style to the needs, interests, and understanding level of your audience. It involves considering the audience's perspectives, backgrounds, and expectations while preparing and delivering a speech. This approach is important because it ensures that the message is relevant, engaging, and comprehensible to the audience. It also helps to build a connection with the audience, making the communication more effective and impactful. ______ speaking is the most common type of presentation. According to the textbook, which of the following are strategies for generating audience interest? Tell stories All of the responses Involve the audience by doing things like asking questions or doing an exercise Use humor Business briefings in private settings are considered presentation speaking, according to the textbook. Which is NOT considered a component of speaker credibility? Rather than focusing on what you will be talking about, beginning with your purpose helps you focus on “why” you are speaking, or in essence, what you want your audience to know, think, feel, or do as a result of your presentation. If you have something important to share in presentation speaking, it is not necessary to adapt your speaking purpose to your audience. Rather than focusing on what you will be talking about, beginning with your purpose helps you focus on “why” you are speaking, or in essence, what you want your audience to know, think, feel, or do as a result of your presentation. In your own words, what does it mean to be an audience-centered speaker and why is it important? Being an audience-centered speaker means focusing on the needs, interests, and understanding level of the audience while delivering a speech or presentation. It involves tailoring the content, language, and delivery style to suit the audience's preferences and expectations. This approach is important because it ensures that the message is effectively communicated and understood. It also helps to engage the audience, making the speech more impactful and memorable. According to the "Speech Development and Speech to Inform Format" lecture, what five elements are included in the Speech to Inform format? List and describe what is included in each of the five parts. 1. Introduction: This is the opening part of the speech where the speaker introduces the topic, grabs the audience's attention, and states the purpose or thesis of the speech. It sets the tone for the rest of the speech. 2. Body: This is the main part of the speech where the speaker presents the main points and supporting information. It is usually organized in a logical manner to make it easy for the audience to follow. 3. Transitions: These are words, phrases, or sentences that link one point to the next. They help to maintain the flow of the speech and guide the audience through the speaker's line of thought. 4. Conclusion: This is the closing part of the speech where the speaker summarizes the main points, restates the purpose or thesis in a new way, and provides a closing thought or call to action. 5. Works Cited: This is where the speaker acknowledges the sources of information used in the speech. It helps to establish credibility and shows respect for intellectual property. How do the purpose statements (general purpose and specific purpose) differ from the central idea of a speech, according to how they are described in the course lecture? The purpose statements of a speech, both general and specific, are about the overall intent or goal of the speech. The general purpose is the broad goal of the speech, such as to inform, persuade, or entertain. The specific purpose is a more detailed statement about what the speaker hopes to accomplish with the speech. On the other hand, the central idea of a speech is the main point or key message that the speaker wants to communicate to the audience. It is the core concept that all parts of the speech revolve around. While the purpose statements guide the direction of the speech, the central idea is what the speech is fundamentally about. A rat in a Skinner box receives food for the first lever press it makes after 50 seconds have elapsed. Next, the rat receives food for the first lever press it makes after 70 seconds have passed. Then, the rat receives a third piece of food for the first lever press he makes after 25 seconds have gone by. On average, the rat's behavior is reinforced once every 60 seconds. In this scenario, the rat is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement. It is 2 AM and all of the sudden a loud scream can be heard coming from your 6-year-old daughter's room. You run down the hall and see that your daughter looks disoriented and is sitting straight up in bed. She does not respond to your efforts to calm her, but after a few minutes she lays down and goes back to sleep. In the morning, your daughter remembers nothing about this and doesn't recall any bad dreams. What sleep disorder does this sound like? You take a trip to New York City with your friends. During the trip, you visit the Empire State Building (a very tall skyscraper) and ride the elevator to the top. You also learn during this trip that construction on the Empire State Building started in 1930. You also take a cooking class while you are in New York, where you learn how to fold dough with your hands in order to make a type of dumpling called a pirogi.
In this scenario, which memory would be an example of a procedural memory? Being able to remember how to fold dough to make a pirogi Last week, you were with your friends downtown and you heard your friend use a secret password to gain entry into an exclusive club. The next weekend, you are out with a different group of friends. You decide you want to show them the club, but when you get there, you can't remember the secret password. When looking at the four steps in the modeling process, the reason you aren't able to imitate your friends behavior and get into the club is because of a problem with.... It would be most accurate to describe brain activity during stage 4 NREM sleep as mostly having brain waves with..... high amplitude and low frequency You are asked to take a survey and agree. As you read the first question, it says: "Do you support the necessary protection of having teachers carry guns in school so they can protect innocent children?" You quickly recognize that this survey question is flawed because.... As you are driving your car, you come around a corner and see a red traffic light. You begin to step on the brake pedal so that your car slowly comes to a stop at the traffic light. Which of the following would best describe this situation? The red light is a discriminative stimulus, and you stepping on the brake pedal is an operant response. During Solomon Asch's famous "line-matching" study, where was the participant (i.e. the one person who was not a confederate) always seated? In the second-to-last position