Which of the following are brain abnormalities found in people with Alzheimer's disease? (Select all that apply.)
- Neurofibrillary tangles made up of tau
- Plaques that are deposits of beta-amyloid
- Neurological immaturity of brain development
• Neurofibrillary tangles made up of tau
• Plaques that are deposits of beta-amyloid
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What treatment might you suggest for Alex's symptoms?
Match the disorders based on whether they are neurodevelopmental or neurocognitive disorders.
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
[ Choose ]
- Autism spectrum disorder
[ Choose ]
Which of the following is not a subtype of ADHD?
- Predominantly hyperattentive
What areas of impairment is common with Autism Spectrum Disorder? Select all that apply.
- Deficits in social interactions and communication.
- Deficits in restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, and activities.
- Deficits in cognitive ability and academic achievement.
Intellectual developmental disorders include intellectual deficits and deficits in the ability to function in three broad domains of daily living including all of the following except
The last few decades have brought us new knowledge in how much the brain changes _____.
Children who are diagnosed with ADHD have trouble with which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
- Controlling their impulses
- Paying attention
- Accomplishing long-term goals
According to research, girls with ADHD tend to display primarily ______ features
According to research, symptoms of ADHD persist into adulthood for about ______ percent of people diagnosed with ADHD in childhood.
Brain abnormalities in children with diagnoses of ADHD involve the prefrontal ____, which is key to control of cognition and behavior.
In adulthood, the brain continues to change in response to which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
- An individual's health
- An individual's lifestyle
- Personal experiences
According to research, which of the following are associated with families of children with ADHD? (Select all that apply.)
- Frequent disruption
- Substance abuse
Which of the following statements is true of children diagnosed with ADHD?
- They display a number of energetic and distraction-prone behaviors that are normal for all children, but to a much more severe degree.
It is thought that stimulants used for the treatment of ADHD increase levels of _____ in the synapses of the brain, enhancing release and inhibiting reuptake of this neurotransmitter.
According to research, which is true of gender differences in ADHD diagnoses?
- Boys are more than twice as likely as girls to be diagnosed with ADHD.
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
- Restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests
- Deficits in social interactions and communications
Adults diagnosed with ADHD as children are at increased risk for which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
- Antisocial personality disorder
- Marital problems
- Substance abuse
- Mood disorders
- Legal troubles
Which of the following are true of children with autism in terms of play? (Select all that apply.)
- They play with a part of a toy rather than the whole toy itself.
- They engage in bizarre, repetitive behaviors.
The _____ is smaller in volume in the brains of children diagnosed with ADHD.
In regard to a diagnosis of autism, one criteria is that the onset of symptoms must be _____.
According to research, which of the following is not a typical feature of parents of children diagnosed with ADHD?
The best predictors of the outcome of autism is language development before age _____ and an IQ above 50.
Most children with ADHD are treated with Blank______ drugs, such as Ritalin, Dexedrine, and Adderall.
In the DSM-5-TR, autism is classified as a(n) _____.
The DSM-5-TR diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder utilizes ______ fundamental behavior domains.
Studies indicate that the concordance rate for autism in monozygotic twins is about _____ percent.
One of the first things Connie's mother noticed before Connie was diagnosed with autism was that Connie _____.
- would play with parts of toys
Which symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are improved by medication? (Select all that apply.)
- Stereotyped behaviors
- Sleep disturbances
For a diagnosis of autism, symptoms must have their onset in early ____.
In terms of diagnosing intellectual development disorder, match the functional domain with its description.
- 1. Conceptual - Reading, writing, reasoning, and problem-solving. 2. Social - Awareness and understanding of others' experiences. 3. Practical - Self-care.
The best predictors of the outcome of autism are ____ development before the age of 6 and an IQ above 50.
There are many ____ causes of intellectual developmental disorder, including chromosomal and gestational disorders and prenatal exposure to toxins.
In which version of the DSM is autism classified as an autism spectrum disorder?
Nearly 300 genes affecting brain development and functioning have been implicated in the development of intellectual developmental disorder.
Anne is 4 years old and has been diagnosed with autism. She has a newborn brother, Tad. How likely is Tad to also have a diagnosis of autism?
Which of the following are medications used to control the symptoms of autism? (Select all that apply.)
Which of the following is a genetically transmitted metabolic disorder that causes intellectual development disorder because a child is unable to metabolize phenylalanine?
The diagnostic criteria for intellectual developmental disorder involves deficits in which of the following domains? (Select all that apply.)
In Tay-Sachs disease, there is a progressive degeneration of the ____ system, leading to mental and physical deterioration.
Which of the following are biological causes of intellectual disability disorder? (Select all that apply.)
- Chromosomal abnormalities
- Brain injury
- Metabolic problems
- Prenatal exposure to toxins
Down syndrome is also known as _____.
Nearly 300 genes affecting brain development and functioning have been implicated in which disorder?
- Intellectual developmental disorder
Fragile X syndrome is caused by
- the tip of the X chromosome breaking off.
____ baby syndrome involves bleeding in and around the brain or behind the eyes, which can lead to seizures, partial or total blindness, paralysis, intellectual development disorder, or death.
Which of the following are true of phenylketonuria? (Select all that apply.)
- It is carried by a recessive gene.
- It is treated with a special diet.
- It can cause intellectual disability.
Children with intellectual developmental disorder are more likely to come from what kind of socioeconomic background?
Which of the following are true of Tay-Sachs disease? (Select all that apply.)
- It occurs primarily in Jewish populations.
- It is carried by a recessive gene.
- It involves degeneration of the nervous system.
Drug therapy is not typically used for people diagnosed with intellectual developmental disorder.
One of the best-known causes of intellectual development disorder is ____ syndrome, which occurs when chromosome 21 is present in triplicate rather than in duplicate.
_____ is one behavioral strategy that can be used with children diagnosed with intellectual developmental disorder.
Which of the following are true of fragile X syndrome? (Select all that apply.)
- It affects primarily males.
- It is an intellectual disability disorder.
Many adults with intellectual developmental disorder live in ____ homes, where they receive assistance in the tasks of daily living.
Rapidly moving a baby's head causes brain damage and is called _____.
In which of the following areas might someone with a specific learning disorder be diagnosed as having a deficit? (Select all that apply.)
- Written expression
Low socioeconomic status, having parents who do not read to their children, and poverty are all _____ factors that might exacerbate intellectual developmental disorder.
Which of the following are categories of communication disorders? (Select all that apply.)
- Speech disorder
- Language disorder
- Social communication disorder
The ____ antipsychotics are sometimes used to reduce aggressiveness and self-injurious behaviors in people with intellectual developmental disorder.
_____ factors linked to learning disorders include lead poisoning, birth defects, sensory deprivation, and low socioeconomic group membership.
____ strategies that involve rewarding positive actions and reducing negative ones are often utilized in people diagnosed with intellectual disability disorder to better integrate them into the community.
The DSM-5-TR identifies _____ different motor disorders.
Caleb is a young adult with an intellectual developmental disorder. His parents have decided he needs help with daily living tasks. They will most likely recommend _____ for Caleb.
Which of the following is true of Tourette's disorder?
- Multiple motor and one or more vocal tics are present.
The DSM-5-TR category of specific ____ disorder includes deficits in reading, written language, and mathematics.
Which actions would typically be repeated by someone with stereotypic movement disorder? (Select all that apply.)
- Hand waving
- Body rocking
- Hair twirling
- Head banging
The ____ disorders involve persistent difficulties in the acquisition and use of language and other means of interaction.
Which of the following are characteristic of symptoms of major and minor neurocognitive disorders? (Select all that apply.)
- They arise from medical conditions.
- They arise most often late in life.
Mitch has been diagnosed with several learning disorders. Which of the following are environmental factors that may have created the risk for this diagnosis?
- Sensory deprivation
- Lead poisoning
Which of the following represent the different motor disorders in the DSM-5-TR? (Select all that apply.)
- Persistent motor or vocal tic disorder
- Stereotypic movement disorder
- Developmental coordination disorder
- Tourette's disorder
The main symptom of major neurocognitive disorders is ____ decline severe enough to interfere with daily living.
Andi has multiple motor and vocal tics and sometimes shouts obscenities in public. These behaviors have persisted for over a year and began when Andi was 13. Andi's most likely diagnosis is Blank______.
Craig has a neurocognitive disorder. When his father says "go to sleep," Craig says, "sleep, sleep, sleep, sleep, sleep, sleep, sleep." The term for this is _____.
In what way do the repetitive behaviors typical of stereotypic movement disorder differ from tics?
- The individual engages in them for an extended period of time
Which task would be challenging for people with impaired executive functions?
- Planning and cooking a meal
Which of the following DSM-5-TR categories describes disorders with typical onset late in life, caused by underlying medical conditions, and involving perceptual disturbances, and difficulties in planning and organizing and/or the ability to identify objects?
On average, a person with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease lives _____ after diagnosis.
Which of the following are symptoms of major neurocognitive disorder? (Select all that apply.)
- Memory deficits
- Cognitive decline
- Aphasia and apraxia
Which is true of genetic links to Alzheimer's disease?
- Several genes seem to be linked to the development of the disease.
Which of the following best represent palilalia? (Select all that apply.)
- Repeating sounds over and over again
- Saying the same word repeatedly
Ella recently suffered a stroke, and is unable to pay attention and has slow processing of information. Ella's most likely diagnosis is _____.
- vascular neurocognitive disorder
Most people with major NCD experience a loss of ____ functions, those brain functions that involve planning and completing complex behaviors.
A ____ is sudden damage to an area of the brain due to the blockage of blood flow or to bleeding.
The early onset type of Alzheimer's disease _____.
- tends to progress more quickly than late onset
Vascular neurocognitive disorders often occur after a large ____ or an accumulation of smaller ones.
Neurofibrillary ____ are common in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease but uncommon in normal brains.
According to research, Lewy body disease is the ______ most common type of progressive neurocognitive disorder.
Identify the gene that is most consistently associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD).
- The apolipoprotein E gene
Which of the following are causes of neurocognitive disorders? (Select all that apply.)
- Brain tumors
- Endocrine conditions
- Nutritional deficiencies
Which of the following are the symptoms of neurocognitive disorder caused by Lewy body disease? (More than one option may be correct.)
- Changes in attention and alertness
- Recurrent visual hallucinations
Individuals with a single closed head injury are more likely to experience mild symptoms that could dissipate over time than those who receive multiple or repeated closed head injuries.
Hannah suffered a stroke, which means that _____.
- an area of her brain was damaged due to the blockage of blood flow or to bleeding
Which of the following are possible factors associated with vascular neurocognitive disorder? (Select all that apply.)
- High blood pressure
Who of the following is statistically more likely to be diagnosed with a neurocognitive disorder?
Based on research what percent of chronic alcohol abusers have neurocognitive disorders?
Which of the following are true of the Nun Study? (Select all that apply.)
- It is a longitudinal study.
- It involved studying the nuns' brains.
____ neurocognitive disorder occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked and tissue damage results.
A condition in which a person suffers from recent memory loss, has a clouding of attention, is disoriented, and is unable to focus is _____.
A ____ is sudden damage to an area of the brain due to the blockage of blood flow or to bleeding.
Delirium may be the result of a person's medical disorder or the effect of medications. It also may result from sensory ____, a syndrome known as ICU/CCU psychosis.
Boys and young men are more likely to suffer from TBIs because they ______.
According to studies, which of the following is true with regard to gender differences in neurocognitive disorders?
- More women than men are affected.
Which are important to treating delirium? (Select all that apply.)
- Treat any associated medical conditions
- Discontinue drugs that may be making the delirium worse
What exactly was studied in the Nun Study?
____ is characterized by disorientation, recent memory loss, and a clouding of attention usually caused by an underlying medical condition.
ICU/CCU psychosis involves _____.
- patients who experience delirium because of sensory isolation
People with occasional issues with conduct and/or impulse control _____.
- generally are compassionate and law-abiding but occasionally defy authority
Children with diagnoses of conduct disorder engage in _____ transgressions of social norms.
Which of the following are the categories into which behaviors of children with conduct disorder fall? (Select all that apply.)
- Serious violations of rules
- Aggression to people and animals
- Deceitfulness or theft
- Destruction of property
Conduct disorder can have an onset before ____ years of age.
Adolescent onset age conduct disorder can be diagnosed at which age or later?
People who potentially meet the criteria for conduct and/or impulse control disorder are which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
- Frequently disobedient
- Cruel and known to behave unlawfully
- Disrespectful of others' feelings and/or property
The DSM-5-TR disorder of ____ ____ disorder has criteria of chronic negativistic behavior, disobedience, and hostility.
____ disorder refers to syndrome marked by chronic disregard for the rights of others, including specific behaviors such as stealing, lying, and engaging in acts of violence.
Which of the following are associated with children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder? (Select all that apply.)
- Mood or anxiety disorders
- Conduct disorder
- Substance use disorders
The behaviors of children with diagnoses of _____ fall into four categories: aggression to people and animals, serious violations of rules, property destruction, and deceitfulness or theft.
According to research boys are _____ times more likely than girls to be diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder.